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A. Harper, The English Navigation Laws (New York, 1939). Joan Thirsk’s Economic Policy and Projects: The Development of Consumer Society in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1978) is brilliant. A useful supplement is Carole Shammas’ The Preindustrial Consumer in England and America (New York, 1990).

The literature on the so-called industrial revolution is extremely extensive and continues to grow unabated. Much of it (especially books) is collected in British Economic and Social History: A Bibliographical Guide, compiled by W. H. Chaloner and R. C. Richardson (Manchester, 1976). Which

comes next is very selective; it is limited to a few classical general works and others chosen for their style or core ideas. Basic reference is the work of B. R. Mitchell in collaboration with Phyllis Deane, Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1962), and B. R. Mitchell and H. G. Jones, Second Abstract of British Historical Statistics (Cambridge, 1971). The Atlas of Industrializing Britain, 1780-1914, edited by John Langton and R. J. Morris (London, 1986), is extremely helpful in getting an idea of ​​the spatial aspect of industrialization. Something similar occurs with The Archeology of the Industrial Revolution, edited by Brian Bracegirdle (London, 1973), with abundant illustrations, which allows the student to visualize the technology of the beginning of industrialization. M. W. Flinn, British Population Growth, 1700-1850 (“Studies”, London, 1970), summarizes and briefly analyzes the essential information. The bibliography on proto-industrialization is summarized by Franklin Mendels in “Proto-Industrialization: Theory and Reality”, in Eighth Congress of International Economic History, Budapest 1982, “A” Themes, pp. 69-107. If the article is difficult to locate, try searching, also by Franklin Mendels, “Proto-Industrialization: The First Phase of the Industrialization Process,” Journal of Economic History, 32 (March, 1972): 241-261, in which gave the term explicit definition for the first time, later modified. See also Peter Kriedte et al., Industrialization before Industrialization (Cambridge, 1981). For a skeptical point of view, D. C. Coleman “Proto-Industrialization: A Concept Too Many”, Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 36 (August 1980): 435-448. A recent text with the insight and skill of cliometrics is The Economic History of Britain since 1700, edited by Roderick Floud and Donald. McCloskey (2nd ed., 3 vols., Cambridge, 1993). Another classic text is Peter Mathias, The First Industrial Nation: An Economic History of Britain, 1700-1914 (2nd ed., London, 1983), Part I. See also, by the same author, The Transformation of England (London, 1979), which focuses on the 19th century.

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The Dominicans Miguel Hidalgo and Joaquín Valero founded among the Paipai the mission San Vicente Ferrer (or San Vicente; Baja California; Mexico) (Aug), the largest and most important of this order in the province, abandoned in 1833 after the death of most of natives of imported diseases.

Rebellion of the indigenous people of Izúcar (Puebla, Mexico) (Jan), who are subjected and sent to Havana to serve in the navy.

A company and an artillery section are created for the Plaza de Acapulco (Guerrero; Mexico).

The priest Tomás Helguera founds San Fernando de la Frontera (today Frontera; Tabasco; Mexico) (30 Mar).

Indigenous people from Zacapa (Guatemala) settle in a place they call Cacat Atl (today San Pedro Zacapa; Santa Bárbara; Honduras).

British expedition under the command of captains John Polson (on land) and Horatio Nelson (at sea) (Mar-Nov): 3,000 men arrive at the mouth of the San Juan River (24 Mar) with the intention of seizing Granada and León and Nelson, in what will be his first combat, captures the small battery on Bartola Island (Apr 9); attack San Juan del Norte and upriver besiege the fort of the Immaculate Conception (today El Castillo; Río San Juan; Nicaragua) (13-29 Apr), where Juan de Ayssa, under his command, with the defenders reduced from 228 to 160 , of whom only 60 are soldiers, no longer with food or ammunition, he is forced to surrender (29 Apr) (despite which Ayssa, a prisoner in Jamaica, will be promoted to lieutenant colonel on June 12, 1781 and appointed Governor of Nicaragua in 1783); Despite the arrival of 450 British reinforcements (May 15), the Spanish resistance and especially the yellow fever kill 2,500 of them and they must leave (Nov 30), flying the fort first. John Polson passes away, but one of the few survivors is Nelson (evacuated Apr 28). This huge failure has cost the British more than 3 million pesos.

As the British garrison of Black River (Río Tinto; Gracias a Dios; Honduras) and Miskito allies participate in the unsuccessful expedition against Nicaragua (Mar-Nov), the Spanish attack this establishment, destroy part of its fortifications and disperse its settlers.

At this time the bishop of Nicaragua Esteban Lorenzo de Tristán y Esmenota (September 11, 1775 – Dec 15, 1783; he occupied the seat on March 23, 1777) personally financed an expedition to the Mosquito coast and managed to get many mosquitoes and zambos baptized Among them, the same mosquito chief, Yarice, who agrees to settle with his family in the town of Boaco, but accused of smuggling with the English (all mosquitoes have been engaged in it for centuries) dies in the Guatemalan prison, which that provokes the revenge of the mosquitoes, that lovigüisca and Juigalpa looted and as in charge of the conversions a Franciscan Recollect was left alone.

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Further north, the lords opposed logging on the grounds of hunting privileges, but the peasants, for their part, needed forests to provide them with firewood and pasture, which led to numerous violent confrontations between the latter and the former over the use of the that remained. With no more land available, the pastures, meadows, and moors became farmland. This meant that there were less livestock and, as a consequence, less protein in the diet and less manure. Fertilizer shortage had been one of the constant problems in the feudal economy, and the decline in livestock made it worse. Harvests declined in the same proportion as cropland increased. Efforts to increase productivity, such as the introduction of quadruple rotation, more complicated rotations and the use of green manure, had some effect in some regions, but the efforts were not carried out quickly enough and their results were not. they were substantial enough to offset diminishing returns from depleted marginal lands. As we have seen, in the period of expansion of the medieval economy there was a tendency, on the part of the lords, to commute services to work for monetary income and to lease their demesnes to prosperous peasants. As urban and population growth continued, the prices of most agricultural products rose at the same time as wages fell. Many lords, either to reinforce their dwindling income or to take advantage of the favorable price-wage ratio, decided to return to cultivating their own demesne, sometimes increasing it at the expense of pastures or even peasant lands. , and trying to re-impose services on work. Such attempts met strong resistance and had little success in Western Europe; the Eastern European lords, on the other hand, proved stronger. In any case, the constant drop in wages made it profitable for the lords to cultivate their land with wage earners. They could even hire wealthy peasants, who thus increased their wealth; but the great mass of the peasant population found itself in an increasingly dire situation. Partly for this reason, and also because of the increase in taxes collected by local kings and lords, there was an increase in

of social tensions, with occasional outbreaks of violence and insurrection, such as the uprising of the Flemish peasants and workers against their lords and employers during the Famine of 1315-1317.